ProCinema: The Siege (Edward Zwick, ). Lessing, one of Schadow's most talented pupils at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, is considered the pioneer of Düsseldorf landscape painting. The Siege is a. Höre El asedio [The Siege] kostenlos | Hörbuch von Arturo Pérez-Reverte, gelesen von Victor Velasco | Jetzt GRATIS das Hörbuch herunterladen | Im.
The Siege - Die BelagerungDIE BELAGERUNG VON ASGARD Habt ihr gedacht, Norman Osborns Liste wäre schon der definitive Frevel gegenüber der | Archivartikel nicht mehr. Höre El asedio [The Siege] kostenlos | Hörbuch von Arturo Pérez-Reverte, gelesen von Victor Velasco | Jetzt GRATIS das Hörbuch herunterladen | Im. Ausnahmezustand (Originaltitel: The Siege) ist ein US-amerikanischer Action- und Polit-Thriller aus dem Jahr von Edward Zwick mit Denzel Washington,.
The Siege Navigation menu VideoThe Siege (3/3) Movie CLIP - Arresting the General (1998) HD Official Website. Master the art of destruction and gadgetry in Tom Clancy’s Rainbow Six Siege. Face intense close quarters combat, high lethality, tactical decision making, team play, and explosive action within every moment. Available on Xbox One, PS4, and PC. 1/2/ · The Siege is a unique Small Cluster Jewel Small Cluster Jewel Place into an allocated Small, Medium or Large Jewel Socket on the Passive Skill Tree. Added passives do not interact with jewel radiuses. Right click to remove from the Socket. Tactical airbridge Apollo 11 Film were developed and, as planned, used extensively for supplying the Chindits during Operation Thursday Reporter Sky — May Tools What links Pennywise Clown Related changes Amazon Baby Geschenk pages Printable version Permanent link Page information Page values. The Front Line The Front Line Small Cluster Jewel Adds Veteran's Awareness It was a great honour to fight at the front. The besieged Gauls, facing starvation, eventually surrendered after their relief force met defeat against Caesar's auxiliary cavalry. However, Kraft insists that Samir is not a terrorist and that his continued freedom is vital to the investigation. When considering the plans of Crown Prince Wilhelmpurely concerned with taking the citadel and not with French casualty figures, it can be considered a true siege. Kitava's Kaputte Uhr Kitava's The Siege Small Cluster Jewel Adds Disciple of Kitava Savour the Amazon In Deutscher Sprache, cherish the sweet, For there may never be another chance to eat. For other uses, see The Siege disambiguation. During World War II, trace italienne fortresses could still present a formidable challenge, for example, in the last days of World Fünf Ist Trümpf II, during Ssumday Battle in Karin Ugowski Heutethat saw some of the heaviest Kino Kochel fighting of the war, the Soviets Woodys Stuttgart not attempt to storm the Spandau Citadel built between andbut chose to invest it and negotiate its Pandemic Tödliche Erreger. Several times during the Cold War the western powers had Rachel Adams use their airbridge expertise. Operational Blitzkrieg Expeditionary Deep operation Maneuver Operational manoeuvre group.
Medium Cluster Jewel Medium Cluster Jewel Place into an allocated Medium or Large Jewel Socket on the Passive Skill Tree.
Large Cluster Jewel Large Cluster Jewel Place into an allocated Large Jewel Socket on the Passive Skill Tree. Calamitous Visions Calamitous Visions Small Cluster Jewel Adds Lone Messenger "Try as I might, I could not escape it.
When I closed my eyes, I saw only death. Each breath tainted with the scent of seared and smouldering flesh, And each sound tangled with pleas for mercy.
Kitava's Teachings Kitava's Teachings Small Cluster Jewel Adds Disciple of Kitava Savour the bitter, cherish the sweet, For there may never be another chance to eat.
Natural Affinity Natural Affinity Small Cluster Jewel Adds Nature's Patience You can take the girl out of the woods, but you can't take the woods out of the girl.
One With Nothing One With Nothing Small Cluster Jewel Adds Hollow Palm Technique Once you begin to rely on your weapons, You ensure you can't live without them.
The Front Line The Front Line Small Cluster Jewel Adds Veteran's Awareness It was a great honour to fight at the front. The few that survived the initial charge were guaranteed fame and fortune.
The Interrogation The Interrogation Small Cluster Jewel Adds Secrets of Suffering Pain is a fine motivator, But if you seek the truth, Fear of pain unknown has no parallel.
The Siege The Siege Small Cluster Jewel Adds Kineticism As the dead battered Highgate's barricades, The Black Sekhema accepted her fate, And stood her ground.
What hope have you? Beacon of Madness 3 variants. Delirium Orb Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Generic Items reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Can apply up to 5 to a single Map item. Abyssal Delirium Orb Abyssal Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Abyss Items reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Amorphous Delirium Orb Amorphous Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Metamorph reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Armoursmith's Delirium Orb Armoursmith's Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Armour reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Blacksmith's Delirium Orb Blacksmith's Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Weapons reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Blighted Delirium Orb Blighted Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Blight reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Cartographer's Delirium Orb Cartographer's Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Map Items reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Decadent Delirium Orb Decadent Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Perandus Items reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Diviner's Delirium Orb Diviner's Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Divination Cards reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Fine Delirium Orb Fine Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Currency Items reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Foreboding Delirium Orb Foreboding Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Harbinger Items reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
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Fragmented Delirium Orb Fragmented Delirium Orb Stack Size: 10 Modifies a Map item adding layers of Delirium with the Fragments reward type Right click this item then left click a Map item to apply it.
Due to logistics, long-lasting sieges involving a minor force could seldom be maintained. A besieging army, encamped in possibly squalid field conditions and dependent on the countryside and its own supply lines for food, could very well be threatened with the disease and starvation intended for the besieged.
To end a siege more rapidly, various methods were developed in ancient and medieval times to counter fortifications, and a large variety of siege engines was developed for use by besieging armies.
Ladders could be used to escalade over the defenses. Battering rams and siege hooks could also be used to force through gates or walls, while catapults , ballistae , trebuchets , mangonels , and onagers could be used to launch projectiles to break down a city's fortifications and kill its defenders.
A siege tower , a substantial structure built to equal or greater height than the fortification's walls, could allow the attackers to fire down upon the defenders and also advance troops to the wall with less danger than using ladders.
In addition to launching projectiles at the fortifications or defenders, it was also quite common to attempt to undermine the fortifications, causing them to collapse.
This could be accomplished by digging a tunnel beneath the foundations of the walls, and then deliberately collapsing or exploding the tunnel.
This process is known as mining. The defenders could dig counter-tunnels to cut into the attackers' works and collapse them prematurely.
Fire was often used as a weapon when dealing with wooden fortifications. The Byzantine Empire used Greek fire , which contained additives that made it hard to extinguish.
Combined with a primitive flamethrower , it proved an effective offensive and defensive weapon. The universal method for defending against siege is the use of fortifications, principally walls and ditches , to supplement natural features.
A sufficient supply of food and water was also important to defeat the simplest method of siege warfare: starvation.
On occasion, the defenders would drive 'surplus' civilians out to reduce the demands on stored food and water. During the Warring States period in China — BC , warfare lost its honorable, gentlemen's duty that was found in the previous era of the Spring and Autumn period , and became more practical, competitive, cut-throat, and efficient for gaining victory.
The philosophically pacifist Mohists followers of the philosopher Mozi of the 5th century BC believed in aiding the defensive warfare of smaller Chinese states against the hostile offensive warfare of larger domineering states.
The Mohists were renowned in the smaller states and the enemies of the larger states for the inventions of siege machinery to scale or destroy walls.
These included traction trebuchet catapults , eight-foot-high ballistas , a wheeled siege ramp with grappling hooks known as the Cloud Bridge the protractible, folded ramp slinging forward by means of a counterweight with rope and pulley , and wheeled 'hook-carts' used to latch large iron hooks onto the tops of walls to pull them down.
When enemies attempted to dig tunnels under walls for mining or entry into the city, the defenders used large bellows the type the Chinese commonly used in heating up a blast furnace for smelting cast iron to pump smoke into the tunnels in order to suffocate the intruders.
Advances in the prosecution of sieges in ancient and medieval times naturally encouraged the development of a variety of defensive countermeasures.
In particular, medieval fortifications became progressively stronger—for example, the advent of the concentric castle from the period of the Crusades —and more dangerous to attackers—witness the increasing use of machicolations and murder-holes , as well the preparation of hot or incendiary substances.
Particular attention would be paid to defending entrances, with gates protected by drawbridges , portcullises , and barbicans. Moats and other water defenses, whether natural or augmented, were also vital to defenders.
In the European Middle Ages , virtually all large cities had city walls— Dubrovnik in Dalmatia is a well-preserved example—and more important cities had citadels , forts , or castles.
Great effort was expended to ensure a good water supply inside the city in case of siege. In some cases, long tunnels were constructed to carry water into the city.
Until the invention of gunpowder -based weapons and the resulting higher-velocity projectiles , the balance of power and logistics definitely favored the defender.
With the invention of gunpowder, cannon and mortars and howitzers in modern times , the traditional methods of defense became less effective against a determined siege.
Although there are numerous ancient accounts of cities being sacked, few contain any clues to how this was achieved.
Some popular tales existed on how the cunning heroes succeeded in their sieges. The best-known is the Trojan Horse of the Trojan War , and a similar story tells how the Canaanite city of Joppa was conquered by the Egyptians in the 15th century BC.
The Biblical Book of Joshua contains the story of the miraculous Battle of Jericho. A more detailed historical account from the 8th century BC, called the Piankhi stela , records how the Nubians laid siege to and conquered several Egyptian cities by using battering rams, archers, and slingers and building causeways across moats.
During the Peloponnesian War , one hundred sieges were attempted and fifty-eight ended with the surrender of the besieged area.
Alexander the Great 's army successfully besieged many powerful cities during his conquests. Two of his most impressive achievements in siegecraft took place in the Siege of Tyre and the Siege of the Sogdian Rock.
The Macedonians built a mole , a raised spit of earth across the water, by piling stones up on a natural land bridge that extended underwater to the island, and although the Tyrians rallied by sending a fire ship to destroy the towers, and captured the mole in a swarming frenzy, the city eventually fell to the Macedonians after a seven-month siege.
In complete contrast to Tyre, Sogdian Rock was captured by stealthy attack. Alexander used commando-like tactics to scale the cliffs and capture the high ground, and the demoralized defenders surrendered.
The importance of siege warfare in the ancient period should not be underestimated. One of the contributing causes of Hannibal 's inability to defeat Rome was his lack of siege engines , thus, while he was able to defeat Roman armies in the field, he was unable to capture Rome itself.
The legionary armies of the Roman Republic and Empire are noted as being particularly skilled and determined in siege warfare. An astonishing number and variety of sieges, for example, formed the core of Julius Caesar 's mid-1st-century BC conquest of Gaul modern France.
In his Commentarii de Bello Gallico Commentaries on the Gallic War , Caesar describes how, at the Battle of Alesia , the Roman legions created two huge fortified walls around the city.
The Romans held the ground in between the two walls. The besieged Gauls, facing starvation, eventually surrendered after their relief force met defeat against Caesar's auxiliary cavalry.
During the Roman-Persian Wars , siege warfare was extensively being used by both sides. The early Muslims, led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad , made extensive use of sieges during military campaigns.
The first use was during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa. According to Islamic tradition, the invasion of Banu Qaynuqa   occurred in AD.
The Banu Qaynuqa were a Jewish tribe expelled by Muhammad for allegedly breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina   : by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman, which led to her being stripped naked.
A Muslim killed a Jew in retaliation, and the Jews in turn killed the Muslim man. This escalated to a chain of revenge killings, and enmity grew between Muslims and the Banu Qaynuqa, leading to the siege of their fortress.
The second siege was during the Invasion of Banu Nadir. According to The Sealed Nectar , the siege did not last long; the Banu Nadir Jews willingly offered to comply with the Muhammad's order and leave Madinah.
Their caravan counted loaded camels, including their chiefs, Huyai bin Akhtab, and Salam bin Abi Al-Huqaiq, who left for Khaibar, whereas another party shifted to Syria.
Muhammad seized their weapons, land, houses, and wealth. Amongst the other booty he managed to capture, there were 50 armours, 50 helmets, and swords.
This booty was exclusively Muhammad's because no fighting was involved in capturing it. He divided the booty at his own discretion among the early Emigrants and two poor Helpers, Abu Dujana and Suhail bin Haneef.
Other examples include the Invasion of Banu Qurayza in February—March  and the Siege of Ta'if in January In the Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire 's campaign against China then comprising the Western Xia Dynasty , Jin Dynasty , and Southern Song dynasty by Genghis Khan until Kublai Khan , who eventually established the Yuan Dynasty in , with their armies was extremely effective, allowing the Mongols to sweep through large areas.
Even if they could not enter some of the more well-fortified cities, they used innovative battle tactics to grab hold of the land and the people:.
Another Mongol tactic was to use catapults to launch corpses of plague victims into besieged cities.
The disease-carrying fleas from the bodies would then infest the city, and the plague would spread, allowing the city to be easily captured, although this transmission mechanism was not known at the time.
In , the bodies of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague were thrown over the walls of the besieged Crimean city of Kaffa now Feodosiya.
It has been speculated that this operation may have been responsible for the advent of the Black Death in Europe. On the first night while laying siege to a city, the leader of the Mongol forces would lead from a white tent : if the city surrendered, all would be spared.
On the second day, he would use a red tent: if the city surrendered, the men would all be killed, but the rest would be spared.
On the third day, he would use a black tent: no quarter would be given. However, the Chinese were not completely defenseless, and from AD until , the Southern Song Chinese held out against the enormous barrage of Mongol attacks.
Much of this success in defense lay in the world's first use of gunpowder i. The Chinese of the Song period also discovered the explosive potential of packing hollowed cannonball shells with gunpowder.
Written later around in the Huo Long Jing , this manuscript of Jiao Yu recorded an earlier Song-era cast-iron cannon known as the 'flying-cloud thunderclap eruptor' fei yun pi-li pao.
The manuscript stated that Wade—Giles spelling :. The shells phao are made of cast iron, as large as a bowl and shaped like a ball.
Inside they contain half a pound of 'magic' gunpowder shen huo. They are sent flying towards the enemy camp from an eruptor mu phao ; and when they get there a sound like a thunder-clap is heard, and flashes of light appear.
If ten of these shells are fired successfully into the enemy camp, the whole place will be set ablaze During the Ming Dynasty AD — , the Chinese were very concerned with city planning in regards to gunpowder warfare.
The site for constructing the walls and the thickness of the walls in Beijing's Forbidden City were favoured by the Chinese Yongle Emperor r.
For more, see Technology of the Song dynasty. The introduction of gunpowder and the use of cannons brought about a new age in siege warfare.
Cannons were first used in Song dynasty China during the early 13th century, but did not become significant weapons for another years or so.
In early decades, cannons could do little against strong castles and fortresses, providing little more than smoke and fire. By the 16th century, however, they were an essential and regularized part of any campaigning army, or castle's defences.
The greatest advantage of cannons over other siege weapons was the ability to fire a heavier projectile, farther, faster, and more often than previous weapons.
They could also fire projectiles in a straight line, so that they could destroy the bases of high walls. Thus, 'old fashioned' walls — that is, high and, relatively, thin — were excellent targets, and, over time, easily demolished.
In , the great walls of Constantinople , the capital of the Byzantine Empire , were broken through in just six weeks by the 62 cannons of Mehmed II 's army.
However, new fortifications, designed to withstand gunpowder weapons, were soon constructed throughout Europe. During the Renaissance and the early modern period , siege warfare continued to dominate the conduct of the European wars.
Once siege guns were developed, the techniques for assaulting a town or fortress became well known and ritualized. The attacking army would surround a town.
Then the town would be asked to surrender. If they did not comply, the besieging army would surround the town with temporary fortifications to stop sallies from the stronghold or relief getting in.
The attackers would next build a length of trenches parallel to the defences these are known as the "First parallel" and just out of range of the defending artillery.
They would dig a trench known as a Forward towards the town in a zigzag pattern so that it could not be enfiladed by defending fire.
Once they were within artillery range, they would dig another parallel the Second Parallel trench and fortify it with gun emplacements.
This technique is commonly called entrenchment. If necessary, using the first artillery fire for cover, the forces conducting the siege would repeat the process until they placed their guns close enough to be laid aimed accurately to make a breach in the fortifications.
In order to allow the forlorn hope and support troops to get close enough to exploit the breach, more zigzag trenches could be dug even closer to the walls, with more parallel trenches to protect and conceal the attacking troops.
After each step in the process, the besiegers would ask the besieged to surrender. If the forlorn hope stormed the breach successfully, the defenders could expect no mercy.
The castles that in earlier years had been formidable obstacles were easily breached by the new weapons.
For example, in Spain, the newly equipped army of Ferdinand and Isabella was able to conquer Moorish strongholds in Granada in — that had held out for centuries before the invention of cannons.
In the early 15th century, Italian architect Leon Battista Alberti wrote a treatise entitled De Re aedificatoria , which theorized methods of building fortifications capable of withstanding the new guns.
He proposed that walls be "built in uneven lines, like the teeth of a saw". He proposed star-shaped fortresses with low, thick walls.
However, few rulers paid any attention to his theories. A few towns in Italy began building in the new style late in the s, but it was only with the French invasion of the Italian peninsula in — that the new fortifications were built on a large scale.
Charles VIII invaded Italy with an army of 18, men and a horse-drawn siege-train. As a result, he could defeat virtually any city or state, no matter how well defended.
In a panic, military strategy was completely rethought throughout the Italian states of the time, with a strong emphasis on the new fortifications that could withstand a modern siege.
The most effective way to protect walls against cannonfire proved to be depth increasing the width of the defences and angles ensuring that attackers could only fire on walls at an oblique angle, not square on.
Initially, walls were lowered and backed, in front and behind, with earth. Towers were reformed into triangular bastions.
Star-shaped fortresses surrounding towns and even cities with outlying defences proved very difficult to capture, even for a well-equipped army.
During World War II, trace italienne fortresses could still present a formidable challenge, for example, in the last days of World War II, during the Battle in Berlin , that saw some of the heaviest urban fighting of the war, the Soviets did not attempt to storm the Spandau Citadel built between and , but chose to invest it and negotiate its surrender.
However, the cost of building such vast modern fortifications was incredibly high, and was often too much for individual cities to undertake.
Many were bankrupted in the process of building them; others, such as Siena , spent so much money on fortifications that they were unable to maintain their armies properly, and so lost their wars anyway.
Nonetheless, innumerable large and impressive fortresses were built throughout northern Italy in the first decades of the 16th century to resist repeated French invasions that became known as the Italian Wars.
Many stand to this day. In the s and '40s, the new style of fortification began to spread out of Italy into the rest of Europe, particularly to France, the Netherlands, and Spain.
Italian engineers were in enormous demand throughout Europe, especially in war-torn areas such as the Netherlands, which became dotted by towns encircled in modern fortifications.
The densely populated areas of Northern Italy and the United Provinces the Netherlands were infamous for their high degree of fortification of cities.
It made campaigns in these areas very hard to successfully conduct, considering even minor cities had to be captured by siege within the span of the campaigning season.
In the Dutch case, the possibility of flooding large parts of the land provided an additional obstacle to besiegers, for example at the Siege of Leiden.
For many years, defensive and offensive tactics were well balanced, leading to protracted and costly wars such as Europe had never known, involving more and more planning and government involvement.
The new fortresses ensured that war rarely extended beyond a series of sieges. However, Kraft insists that Samir is not a terrorist and that his continued freedom is vital to the investigation.
The terrorist incidents escalate with the bombing of a bus and a crowded theater and hostage-taking at an elementary school, and culminate in the destruction of One Federal Plaza, the location of the FBI's New York City field office, with over casualties.
In spite of objections, the President of the United States declares martial law and the United States Army 's st Airborne Division , under Major General William Devereaux Bruce Willis , occupies and seals off Brooklyn in an effort to find the remaining terrorist cells.
Subsequently, all young men of Arab descent, including Haddad's son Frank Jr. Haddad resigns in outrage. New Yorkers stage violent demonstrations against the Army and the profiling of the Arabs; the Army fights to maintain control.
There are reports of Army killings. Hubbard and Kraft, now revealed to be an agent named Sharon Bridger, continue their investigation and capture a suspect, Tariq Husseini.
Devereaux's men torture and kill Husseini in the course of the interrogation. Afterward, Bridger tells Hubbard that Husseini revealed nothing of value because of the principle of compartmentalized information.
Sickened, she finally admits that she herself provided training and support to militants opposed to Saddam Hussein 's regime, working with Samir to recruit and train the followers of the Sheikh.
After the U. She and Hubbard compel Samir to arrange a meeting with the final terrorist cell. Hubbard convinces Haddad to return to the FBI.
A multi-ethnic peace march demonstrates against the occupation of Brooklyn. As the march is getting under way Hubbard and Haddad arrive at the meeting place, but Bridger and Samir have already left.
Samir reveals to Bridger that he constitutes the final cell while in another sense he says, "there will never be a last cell.
Hubbard and Haddad arrive in time to prevent him leaving but Samir shoots Bridger in the heart as she struggles to stop him.
Hubbard kills Samir but despite their best efforts he and Haddad can only watch as Bridger succumbs to her wound after managing to recite certain lines of the second half of the Lord's Prayer and concluding with " Inshallah " — the Arabic phrase "God Willing".
Hubbard, Haddad, and their team raid Devereaux's headquarters to make an arrest for the torture and murder of Husseini. Deveraux insists that under the War Powers Resolution the authority vested in himself by the President supersedes that of the court which issued the arrest warrant.
He then commands his soldiers to aim their assault rifles at the agents, resulting in a Mexican standoff. Hubbard reminds Devereaux that the civil liberties and human rights which he took from Husseini are what all his predecessors have fought and died for.
Devereaux finally submits and is arrested. Martial law ends and the detainees, including Haddad's son, are given their freedom.
The film received mixed reviews from critics. Bruce Willis won the Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actor for his performances in this film, Armageddon , and Mercury Rising.
When the film opened, the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee came out against the film. Its spokesman Hussein Ibish said " The Siege is extremely offensive.
It's beyond offensive. We're used to offensive, that's become a daily thing. This is actually dangerous.
Director Edward Zwick had met with Arab Americans, who suggested that the story be changed to mirror the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing , when Arabs were immediately assumed responsible.
This idea was rejected.